April 12, 1993 - December 20, 1995
NATO Operation Deny Flight commenced at 1200 GMT on Monday, April 12, 1993, with aircraft from France, the Netherlands and United States.
On June 10, 1993, NATO foreign ministers agreed that NATO would provide protective air power in case of attacks against UNPROFOR in performance of its overall mandate in Bosnia-Herzegovina, if it so requested. This offer was in response to UN Security Council Resolution 836. Close air support (CAS) aircraft were deployed to the region. From July 22, 1993 on these forces were ready to provide UNPROFOR with protective air cover if requested to do so.
Operation Deny Flight was the successor of Operation Sky Monitor, which started on October 16, 1992, in support of UN Security Council Resolution 781. In this resolution a ban of military flights in the air space of Bosnia-Herzegovina was established. Flights conducted by or approved by the UN were exempt.
Operation Sky Monitor was commenced by extending the role of NATO Airborne Early Warning (NAEW) aircraft participating in Operation Maritime Monitor over the Adriatic.
UN authorities assessed that in more than 500 cases the ban was violated.
On March 31, 1993, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 816, extending the ban to cover flights by all fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft in the airspace of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except those authorised by UNPROFOR. Member states were authorized to take all necessary measures, in case of further violations, to ensure compliance with the ban.
On April 8 the North Atlantic Council approved the enforcement of the no-fly zone in the framework of the UN Security Council Resolution 816.
Operation Deny Flight was conducted from April 12, 1993 to December 20, 1995, when the international Implementation Force (IFOR) assumed responsibilities for the implementation of the military aspects of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia-Herzegovina. During nearly 1,000 days this operation prevented the warring parties from using the air space as a medium for warfare.
The mission of NATO Operation Deny Flight was threefold:
NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) delegated authority for the implementation of Operation Deny Flight to the Commander in Chief of the Allied Forces in Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), Admiral Leighton W Smith Jr (US Navy), in Naples, Italy.
He delegated control of the operation to the Commander Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (COMAIRSOUTH), Lieutenant General Michael E. Ryan, US Air Force, with headquarters in Naples.
Operational control of day-to-day mission tasking was delegated to the Commander 5th Allied Tactical Air Force, Lieutenant General Andrea Fornasiero, Italian Air Force, at Vicenza, Italy.
Coordination between NATO and the UN was arranged through an exchange of representatives between 5th ATAF and the UN Headquarters in Zagreb and Sarajevo. These liaison officers ensure a continuous exchange of information between NATO and UNPROFOR.
Since aircraft participating in Operation Deny Flight also took part in actions that were important to the development of The Balkan conflict in general, the section with key events has been moved to the Chronology of key events.
The operation started with assets from France, The Netherlands, and the United States. Aircraft were deployed to bases in Italy.
Almost 4,500 personnel from 12 NATO countries -- Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States -- were deployed for this NATO operation. NATO aircraft were available at air bases in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom or on carriers in the Adriatic.
German MiG-29 and USAF F-16 on a joint mission during Operation Deny Flight
|Aircraft of Operation Deny Flight|
|France||5||Mirage F-1CR||Reconnaissance||Istrana||+2 on recall|
|6||Mirage 2000C||Fighter||Cervia||+2 on recall|
|4||Mirage 2000K/D||Ground attack (CAS)||Cervia|
|6||Super Etendard||Fighter bombers (CAS)||Adriatic||Carrier|
|3||F-1CT||Fighter (CAS)||Istrana||On call|
|6||Jaguar||Fighter bombers||Istrana||+2 on recall|
|1||Myster Falcon 20||Transport||Capodichino|
|Germany||14||Tornado||UN RRForce support||Piacenza|
|Italy||6||PA-200 Tornados||FBA||Gioia del Colle|
|2||PA-200 Tornados||Reconnaissance||Gioia del Colle|
|1||B-707||AREF||Pratica di Mare|
|The Netherlands||4||F-16A||Fighter (NFZ)||Villafranca||+2 on recall|
|5||F-16A||CAS||Villafranca||+2 on recall|
|3||F-16A/R||Reconnaissance||Villafranca||+2 on recall|
|Turkey||8||F-16C||Fighter (NFZ)||Ghedi||+10 on recall|
|United Kingdom||6||FMK-3 Tornado||Fighter (NFZ)||Gioia del Colle|
|10||GR-7 Harrier||(CAS)||Gioia del Colle|
|2||GR-7 Harrier||Reconnaissance||Gioia del Colle|
|6||Sea Harrier||Dual-role (CAS/NFZ)||Adriatic||Carrier|
|United States||8||USAF F-15E||CAS/NFZ||Aviano|
|12||USMC F-18D||Dual role (CAS/NFZ)||Aviano|
|12||USAF F-16C/D||Dual role (CAS/NFZ)||Aviano|
|12||USAF O/A-10||Ground attack (CAS)||Aviano|
|3||USAF EC-130||ABCCC 1||Aviano|
|2||USAF EC-130||Electronic Warfare||Aviano|
|10||USAF KC-135||AREF||Pisa / Istres|
|6||USMC EA-6B||Electronic Warfare||Aviano|
|12||USN FA-18C||Fighter (NFZ)||Adriatic||Carrier|
|6||USN FA-18C||Dual role||Adriatic||Carrier|
|6||USN EA6B||Electronic Warfare||Adriatic||Carrier|
|4||USN EA-6B||Electronic Warfare||Adriatic||Carrier|
|NATO AEWF||8||E-3A||AEW||Geilenkirchen 2|
The French E-3F aircraft and those from the E-3A and E-3D Components of NATO's Airborne Early Warning Force (NAEWF) supported Operation Deny Flight as well as the combined NATO/WEU Adriatic embargo enforcement Operation Sharp Guard. The E-3A aircraft were flown by multi-national crews provided by 11 NATO nations.
The French aircraft carrier Foch (when in the Adriatic), British carrier HMS Illustrious (when in the Adriatic) and one US carrier on call.
In the 983 days of Operation Deny Flight, a total of 100,420 missions were flown.
|Operation Deny Flight statistics as of December 29, 1995|
|"No-Fly" Zone fighter sorties flown over Bosnia-Herzegovina||23,021|
|Close Air Support and Air Strike sorties over Bosnia-Herzegovina||27,077|
|Sorties by SEAD, NAEW, tanker, reconnaissance and support aircraft||29,158|
|Number of training missions flown||21,164|
[Source: NATO, NRC Handelsblad and other international news media]